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            Respiratory– Air enters through spiracle and is transported through trachea directly to the major organs

            Cardiovascular– An open circulatory system: blood bathes organs directly (not by arteries, capillaries, and veins). Insect blood carries nutrients, but only plays a minor role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Heart is located in the abdomen and pumps blood through the aorta toward the head. Heart may stop when insect is walking, as walking provides sufficient circulation.

            Digestive– Simple digestive tract. Digestive function sometimes aided by microbes in gut.

            Reproductive- Females generally lay eggs. If these hatch into a nymph, and undergo several molts (instars) to reach adult size and maturity, the process is called incomplete metamorphosis. If eggs hatch into a larva (caterpillar or grub) and form a pupa (chrysalis) before reaching the adult form (imago), the process is called complete metamorphosis.

            Integument- Exoskeleton composed of chitin. Must molt old epidermis in order to grow larger.

            Nervous- Compound eyes with many small lenses give poor definition but good sensitivity to movement. Antennae are responsible for chemoreception, touch, and sense of smell.

            Pet Species

            Praying mantises, Stick and Leaf insects, Sphinx Moth Larvae, Rhinoceros Beetles, Hissing Cockroaches


            Ectoparasites- These can be removed by using gas anesthesia, then gently brushing sleepy mites off of the patient. Never use insecticides.

            Predation- Ants and other predatory species of insects can attack or injure your pet. Keep the cage environment clean, and provide a screen top or similar barrier to pests.

            Bacterial Infection- Rare, but occurs when cage environment is unclean, cage is too moist, or husbandry is poor.– Air enters through spiracle and is transported through trachea directly to the major organs

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